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AdvaCAL Research

30 scientific articles (20 of which are controlled experimental studies) have been published on AAACa calcium, (AdvaCAL) or its ingredients. Select article abstracts and expert information are provided below. Sample size in some of these studies are small.

Spinal Bone Density Change Spinal Bone Density Change

In one clinical study, postmenopausal women and men taking AdvaCAL increased their bone density on average by 8% more than those taking a placebo after 3 years.*

In another study, elderly women taking AdvaCAL increased their bone density on average by 6.6% more than those taking a placebo after 2 years.* Your results will vary.

Select AdvaCAL Research Abstracts and Reports
(Click Below to Read)

  1. LETTER FROM TAKUO FUJITA MD

  2. INCREASE OF BONE MINERAL DENSITY BY CALCIUM SUPPLEMENT WITH OYSTER SHELL ELECTROLYSATE

  3. HEATED OYSTER SHELL-SEAWEED CALCIUM ( AAACA ) ON [BONE LOSS]

  4. A THREE-YEAR COMPARATIVE TRIAL: EFFECT OF COMBINED ALFACALCIDOL AND ELCATONIN

  5. CALCIUM BIOAVAILABILITY FROM HEATED OYSTER SHELL-SEAWEED CALCIUM (ACTIVE ABSORBABLE ALGAE CALCIUM) AS ASSESSED BY URINARY CALCIUM EXCRETION

  6. OVERNIGHT SUPPRESSION OF PARATHYROID HORMONE AND BONE RESORPTION MARKERS BY ACTIVE ABSORBABLE ALGAE CALCIUM. A DOUBLE-BLIND CROSSOVER STUDY

  7. PERIPHERAL COMPUTED TOMOGRAPHY (pQCT) DETECTED SHORT-TERM EFFECT OF AAACA (HEATED OYSTER SHELL WITH HEATED ALGAL INGREDIENT HAI): A DOUBLE-BLIND COMPARISON WITH CACO3 AND PLACEBO

  8. INCREASE OF INTESTINAL CALCIUM ABSORPTION AND BONE MINERAL DENSITY BY HEATED ALGAL-INGREDIENT (HAI) IN RATS

  9. CALCIUM SUPPLEMENTATION AND PARATHYROID HORMONE

  10. EFFECT OF CALCIUM SUPPLEMENTATION ON BONE DENSITY AND PARATHYROID FUNCTION IN ELDERLY SUBJECTS

  11. HEATED OYSTER SHELL WITH ALGAL INGREDIENT (AACa) DECREASES URINARY OXALATE EXCRETION

  12. EFFECTS OF ACTIVE AMINO ACID CALCIUM: ITS BIOAVAILABILITY ON INTESTINAL ABSORPTION, [BONE LOSS] AND REMOVAL OF PLUTONIUM IN ANIMALS

  13. A PILOT STUDY COMPARING AAACA AND CALCIUM CITRATE SUPPLEMENTATION IN MENOPAUSAL US WOMEN INCREASE OF BONE MINERAL DENSITY BY CALCIUM SUPPLEMENT WITH OYSTER SHELLI ELECTROLYSATE.

  14. REAPPRAISAL OF KATSURAGI CALCIUM STUDY, A PROSPECTIVE, DOUBLE-BLIND, PLACEBO-CONTROLLED STUDY ON THE EFFECT OF ACTIVE ABSORBABLE ALGAL CALCIUM (AAACa) ON VERTEBRAL DEFORMITY AND FRACTURE

  15. POSTURAL STABILZING EFFECT OF ALCALCIDOL AND ACTIVE ABSORBABLE ALGAL CALCIUM (AAACA) COMPARED WITH CALCIUM CARBONATE ASSESSED BY COMPUTERIZED POSTUROGRAPHY

  16. CALCIUM PARADOX ACTIVE ABSORBABLE ALGAL CALCIUM (AAACa: NEW JAPANESE TECHNOLOGY FOR BONE LOSS AND CALCIUM PARADOX

  17. NEW STUDY FRACTIONAL ABSORPTION OF ACTIVE ABSORBABLE ALGAL CALCIUM (AAACa) AND CALCIUM CARBONATE BY DUAL STABLE ISOTOPE METHOD

Next: AdvaCAL Patents


LETTER FROM TAKUO FUJITA, MD

Dear Friends:

The enclosed clinical abstracts and articles describe some of the results I have observed in controlled studies on the effects of using AdvaCAL (AAACa calcium), an advanced calcium supplement on which I have been the principal researcher.

It is my view, based on these results, that supplementing with AdvaCAL is a highly effective means of building bone density in women of all ages.* You should be aware, however, that not all medical experts agree with me. Many doctors, having read my research, are encouraging their patients (who may or may not be undergoing other treatments to improve bone density) to supplement with AdvaCAL. Others, however, do not believe that sufficient scientific evidence exists to support the use of [AdvaCAL] and believe the only way to build bone density is with medication. And some doctors, believing there are no significant differences among calcium supplements, advise their patients to take the least expensive calcium source available.

As you consider whether to begin supplementing with AdvaCAL, I encourage you to consult with your personal physician or other health provider, who will undoubtedly be interested in reviewing the enclosed abstracts and articles. I also encourage you to seek out other sources of information on natural supplements in general, and other specific concerns you might have, from agencies such as the United States Food and Drug Administration, which can be easily accessed on the Internet at www.fda.gov.

There are several things you should keep in mind as you review the information in this package. These studies compared AdvaCAL with a calcium carbonate supplement, and studied changes in bone density, not incidence of fractures. More work is needed, to test AdvaCAL against other calcium forms and to measure incidence of bone fracture as well as increase or decrease in bone mineral density. And it is important to understand that AdvaCAL is a dietary supplement, designed to help supply your body's calcium needs in the most efficient manner possible - not a medical treatment, preventive or cure for any health condition or disease.*

For purposes of full disclosure: I obtain no financial interest or benefit from the sales of AdvaCAL.

My best wishes for your continued good health,

Takuo Fujita, M.D.

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INCREASE OF BONE MINERAL DENSITY BY CALCIUM SUPPLEMENT WITH OYSTER SHELL ELECTROLYSATE

Takuo Fujita 1, Masaaki Fukase 1, Haruko Miyamoto 2, Toshio Matsumoto 2 and Toru Ohue 2
1 Third Division, Department of Medicine, Kobe University School of Medicine, Kobe, Japan
2 Katsuragi Hospital, Kishiwada, Japan
Bone and Mineral (1990) 11: 85-91

Abstract
The effect of calcium supplementation, in patients with [bone loss] is still a matter of controversy. Oyster shell electrolysate (OSE) was reported to raise serum calcium and increase urinary calcium excretion in vitamin D-deficient states more readily than calcium carbonate. Since the effect of calcium salts on [bone loss] depends heavily on its bioavailability, the effect of 900 mg/day calcium as OSE was tested in 12 elderly females, using radial bone mineral density measured by single photon absorptiometry and spinal trabecular bone density measured by quantitative computed tomography (QCT) as indicated, in comparison with 21 untreated controls in the same geriatric hospital. Radial bone mineral density significantly increased from the pre-test value after 12 and 24 months in subjects given OSE by paired t-test, whereas it fell significantly in the controls. The spinal QCT value on OSE did not change significantly in either the subjects under treatment with OSE, or the controls. Thus OSE may favorably influence [bone loss] by providing a readily available source of calcium.

NOTE: "OSE" is AAACa (AdvaCAL) without HAI amino acid extract added.

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HEATED OYSTER SHELL-SEAWEED CALCIUM ( AAACA ) ON [BONE LOSS]

T. Fujita, 1 T. Ohue,1 Y. Fujii, 1 A. Miyauchi,2 Y. Takagi
1 Calcium Research Institute. 250 Makamicho. Kishiwada. Osaka. Japan 596 and Katsuragi Hospital. Osaka, Japan
2 National Sanatorium, Hyugo Chuo Hospital, Hyugo, Japan
Calcif Tissue Int (1996) 58:226-230

Abstract
A randomized, prospective, double-blind test was carried out to compare the effects of heated oyster shell-seaweed calcium (AAACa), calcium carbonate, and placebo in 58 elderly, hospitalized women with the mean age of 80 divided into three groups. Group A received 900 mg/day Ca as AAACa, Group B 900 mg/day Ca as CaC03, and Group C placebo besides regular hospital diet containing approximately 600 mg/day for 24 months. From the 25th to the 30th month, all groups were given AAACa. Lumbar spine and radial bone mineral density (BMD) were measured at 3-month intervals. Urinary Ca/Cr and serum alkaline phosphatase, intact and midportion serum parathyroid hormone (PTH), and calcitonin were also measured at intervals. From the 6th to the 24th month of the study, the ratio of lumbar spine BMD (L2-L1 by DPX, Lunar) to the basal pretest value was consistently and significantly higher in group A than Group C but not higher in group B than in Group C. PTH, measured 12 months after the beginning of the study was lower in group A than in Group C, but no significant difference was found between Groups B and C. At 3 months after the placebo was switched to AAACa in group C, serum PTH was significantly decreased from the level during placebo supplement. Morning urine Ca/Cr decreased in groups A after 18 months and B after 12 months, but not in C. Serum alkaline phosphatase decreased in Group A significantly compared with Group C, but not in Group B. AAACa appears to be effective for increasing BMD in elderly subjects.

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A THREE-YEAR COMPARATIVE TRIAL: EFFECT OF COMBINED ALFACALCIDOL AND ELCATONIN

T. Fujita1, Y. Fujii1, B. Goto1, A. Miyauchi2, and Y. Takagi2
1 Calcium Research Institute, 250 Makamicho, Kishiwada, Osaka 596, Japan
2 National Sanatorium, Hyogo Chuo Hospital, Sanda, Hyogo 669-13, Japan
J Bone Miner Metab (1997) 15:223-226

Abstract
The effect of agents commonly used...in Japan — calcium, alfacalcidol (la-hydroxyvitamin D3) elcatonin (eel calcitonin derivative) and an alfacalcidol-elcatonin combination—on lumbar spine bone mineral density (BMD) was assessed in 136 subjects aged 51-83 years with various degrees of [bone loss], divided into five groups approximately matched for age and BMD over a period of 3 years. Lumbar spine BMD decreased by about 3.5% without treatment but was maintained at approximately baseline level on elcatonin. Oral administration of 900 mg/day calcium as AAACa (active absorbable algae calcium) or 1 mg/day alfacalcidol increased lumbar BMD by 4.5% or 3.7%, respectively, after 3 years. Combined use of alfacalcidol and elcatonin was most effective, increasing the BMD by 8.0% after 3 years.

Extremely low calcium and vitamin D intake in Japan with consequent low calcitonin secretion may be responsible for the favorable effects. Alfacalcidol, an active form of vitamin D, and elcatonin acting through different mechanisms may act synergistically on bone to increase BMD.

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CALCIUM BIOAVAILABILITY FROM HEATED OYSTER SHELL-SEAWEED CALCIUM (ACTIVE ABSORBABLE ALGAE CALCIUM) AS ASSESSED BY URINARY CALCIUM EXCRETION

T. Fujita
Calcium Research Institute, 250 Makamicho, Kishiwada, Osaka 596, Japan
J Bone Miner Metab (1996) 14:31-34

Abstract
The bioavailability of heated oyster shell-seaweed calcium (active absorbable algae calcium, AAA Ca) was compared to that of calcium carbonate by measuring increases of urinary calcium excretion after oral load. Eight normal male volunteers ingested 1000mg calcium in the form of either calcium carbonate (CaCO3,) or AAA Ca in a crossover design with a 1-week interval between the two tests. The urinary calcium/ creatinine (Ca/Cr) ratio was measured from 4h before to 6h after the administration at 2-h intervals. Urinary calcium excretion 4-6h after oral ingestion of AAA Ca was 249 ± 119% (SD) of the baseline level, which was significantly higher than that after calcium carbonate, 170 ± 103% (SD) (P = 0.039). Paired comparison of the increment of urinary Ca/Cr over the pretest level was also significantly greater 4-6h after the ingestion of AAA Ca (0.21 ± 0.14) than that after calcium carbonate (0.132 ± 0.158) (P = 0.025). AAA Ca is thus suggested to be more biologically available than calcium carbonate in human subjects.

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OVERNIGHT SUPPRESSION OF PARATHYROID HORMONE AND BONE RESORPTION MARKERS BY ACTIVE ABSORBABLE ALGAE CALCIUM. A DOUBLE-BLIND CROSSOVER STUDY

T. Fujita1, S. Ohgitani2, Y. Fujii1
1 Calcium Research Institute, 250 Makamicho, Kishiwada, Osaka 596, Japan
2 Department of Clinical Laboratories, National Sanatorium Hyogo Chuo Hospital, Hyogo, Japan Received: 12 April 1996/ Accepted: 31 December 1996
Calcif Tissue Int (1997) 60, 506-512

Abstract
In order to study the effect of Ca supplementation on the nocturnal rise of PTH and bone resorption, a double-blind, placebo-controlled study was carried out on 9 healthy male volunteers. Regimen A consisted of an oral dose of 150 mg Ca as AAACa after each meal and 450 mg at bedtime; B consisted of 300 mg after each meal and C was placebo. Plasma ionized Ca was significantly higher in A than in B at 6 a.m. the next morning and urinary Ca/Cr after 5 days was higher in A than in B and C. Plasma intact PTH fell by 19 ± 4 pg/ml in A, 8 ± 7 in B, and 1 ± 7 after 1 day, and significantly decreased by 29 ± 8 in A, increased by 11 ± 11 in B, and 5 ± 7 in C after 5 days (A and B, and A and C.p = 0.0242 and 0.0433, respectively), with increases of % tubular resorption of phosphorus. Urinary excretion of cross-linked collagen degradation product (Crosslaps) was 40 ±10% of the baseline in A, 97 ± 22 in B, and 173 ± 30 in C (A and C. P = 0.0061) after 5 days. Systolic blood pressure at 6 a.m. fell by 17 ± 4 mmHg A, 24 ± 3 in B, and 4 ± 2 in C. Highly biologically available AAACa effectively suppressed nocturnal rise of PTH and bone resorption markers in 5 days.

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PERIPHERAL COMPUTED TOMOGRAPHY (pQCT) DETECTED SHORT-TERM EFFECT OF AAACA (HEATED OYSTER SHELL WITH HEATED ALGAL INGREDIENT HAI): A DOUBLE-BLIND COMPARISON WITH CACO3 AND PLACEBO

T. Fujita1,2, Y. Fujii2, T. B. Goto2, A. Miyauchi3, and Y. Takagi3
1 Katsuragi Hospital, Kishiwada, Japan
2 Calcium Research Institute, 250 Makamicho, Kishiwada 596-0842, Japan
3 National Sanatorium Hyogo Chuo Hospital, Sanda, Japan
J. Bone Miner Metab (2000) 18, 212-215

Abstract
Trabecular bone density at the distal radius and cortical bone density at midradius were measured in 4 randomized groups of women before and after 4-months administration of AAACa, oyster shell heated under reduced pressure with addition of heated algal ingredient (HAI) (group A), AACa, the same preparation without HAI (group B), CaCO(3) (group C); and Placebo (group D); in a double blind system using peripheral quantitative computed tomography (pQCT) with lumbar spine density measurement by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA). Groups A, B and C received 900 mg/day elemental calcium and D received none. In subjects of group A, but not B, C and D, radial trabecular bone density increased significantly, to 106.2% ± 2.1% of the initial value, (mean ± SEM). The increase of trabecular bone density was significantly different from the placebo group (D) only in AAACa (group A) and not in AACa (group B) and the calcium carbonate (group C). Cortical bone density increase was also greater in group A (but not in B and C) than in D. Lumbar spine density did not change significantly. AAACa was apparently more effective, increasing trabecular bone density more than AACa and CaCO(3) containing the same amount of elemental calcium.

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INCREASE OF INTESTINAL CALCIUM ABSORPTION AND BONE MINERAL DENSITY BY HEATED ALGAL-INGREDIENT (HAI) IN RATS

T. Fujita1, Y. Fujii1, B. Goto1, A. Miyauchi2, Y. Takagi2, S. Kobayashi3, K. Komoshita3, N. Mikuni3, Y. Kurihara3 and I.Shikauchi3
1 Calcium Research Institute, 250 Makamicho, Kishiwada, Osaka 596-0842, Japan
2 National Sanatorium Hyogo Chuo Hospital, Hyogo, Japan
3 Institute of Science and Technology, Inc., Tokyo, Japan
J Bone Miner Metab (2000) 18:165-169

Abstract
Active absorbable calcium (AAACa) produced by adding HAI (heated algal ingredient) to oyster shell calcium (AAACa) is quite efficiently absorbed from the intestine and can increase bone mineral density in elderly patients. HAI was produced by heating the seaweed Cystophyllum fusiforme under reduced pressure, extracting with 6N HCL, and partially neutralizing it. Butanol-ethanol extraction then yielded active HAI fraction A, corresponding to about 1% in weight. The active HAI fraction increased intestinal Ca absorption as shown by a dose-dependent increase of plasma Ca in young male parathyroidectornized rats maintained on a low-Ca diet by administration through a stomach tube with a constant dose of AAACa. The action of the active fraction A to maintain bone mass was then tested in young male rats kept on a low-Ca diet for 2 weeks. Bone weight, trabecular bone density, and strength-strain index as indices of bone strength measured by peripheral computed tomography (pQCT) tended to increase when the active HAI fraction was given along with Ca. HAI increased intestinal Ca absorption and prevented the decrease of bone density in rats kept on a low-Ca diet.

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CALCIUM SUPPLEMENTATION AND PARATHYROID HORMONE

S. Ohgitani, Y. Fujii, and T. Fujita
1 Department of Clinical and Research Laboratories, National Sanatorium Hyogo Chuo Hospital, 1314 Ohara, Sanda, Hyogo 669-1515, Japan
2 Calcium Research Institute, Katsuragi Hospital, 250 Makamicho, Kishiwada, Osaka 596-0842, Japan
J Bone Miner Metab (1998) 16:186-189

Abstract
In eight healthy female volunteers 18-19 years of age, the effect of 600mg/day calcium (Ca) supplementation as milk (milk group) or active absorbable algal Ca (AAACa) (AAACa group) was studied for 1 week by a crossover method. Ca, phosphorus (P), magnesium (Mg), osteocalcin, parathyroid hormone (PTH), and markers of bone metabolism in serum or first morning urine samples were measured. Serum and urine Ca and Mg increased slightly in both groups, and urinary excretion of markers of bone resorption decreased in both groups to a similar extent, whereas serum PTH decreased significantly only in the AAACa group with on accompanying rise in serum P and fall in urine P. Higher biological availability of Ca from AAACa than from milk may explain the more efficient suppression of PTH by AAACa than by milk. The higher P content in milk may have stimulated PTH secretion, interfering with the suppression by Ca that would have otherwise occurred.

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EFFECT OF CALCIUM SUPPLEMENTATION ON BONE DENSITY AND PARATHYROID FUNCTION IN ELDERLY SUBJECTS

T. Fujita,T. Ohue, Y. Fujii, A. Miyauchi,Y. Takagi
Calcium Research Institute, Katsuragi Hospital and National Sanatorium Hyogo Chuo Hospital, Osaka, Japan

Miner Electrolyte Metab (1995);21:229-231

Abstract
The effect of calcium supplementation on secondary hyperparathyroidism of old age depends on the intestinal absorption of the calcium preparation used. In order to test the bioavailability and clinical usefulness of a new calcium preparation, heated oyster shell-seaweed calcium (HOSS Ca), a randomized, prospective, double-blind comparison of HOSS Ca, calcium carbonate and placebo was carried out in 58 hospitalized women with a mean age of 82. Group A received 900 mg Ca/day Ca as HOSS Ca, group B 900 mg Ca/day as CaCO3 and group C placebo in addition to the basic hospital diet containing approximately 600 mg Ca/day. After 18 months, lumbar spine bone mineral density (BMD) measured by DPX was 106.1 ± 3.5% (mean ±SEM) of the pretrial basal value in group A, 99.8 ± 3.8% in group B and 90.9 ± 3.4% in group C (A but not B significantly higher than C ) Midradial BMD measured by DPX was 99.3 ± 1.3% in A, 94.8 ± 4.0% in B and 85.5 ± 6.2% in C. The ratio of whole body calcium content between the 12th and 18th month was 96.5 ± 1.7% in A, 90.1 ± 2.7% ± in B and 89.8 ± 1.3% in C (A but not B significantly smaller than C). Final/baseline ratio of urinary Ca/creatinine was 91.7 ± 11.1 in A, 111.4 ± 18.9 in B and 125.2 ± 12.6 in C. Final serum intact and midportion PTH levels were 29 ± 3 and 607 ± 61 pg/ml in A, 45 ± 3 and 789 ± 129 pg/ml in B and 44 ± 3 and 618 ± 71 pg/ml in C (A but not B significantly lower than C) Serumalkaline phosphatase levels (IU) were 89.9 ± 3.9 in A, 91.5 ± 5.0 in B and 125.2 ± 12.6 in C. These findings suggested the most effective suppression of parathyroid function and bone resorptive changes by oyster shell-seaweed calcium followed by calcium carbonate and finally by placebo. HOSS Ca appears to be useful to supplement calcium deficiency and secondary hyperparathyroidism in elderly subjects.

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HEATED OYSTER SHELL WITH ALGAL INGREDIENT (AAACa) DECREASES URINARY OXALATE EXCRETION

Shigeki Ohgitani1 and Takuo Fujita2
(1) Division of Laboratory and Research, National Sanatorium Hyogo Chuo Hospital, 1314 Ohara, Sanda, Hyogo 669-1533, Japan,
(2) Calcium Research Institute, Kishiwada, Japan
J Bone Miner Metab (2000) 18:283–286

Abstract
In nine normal subjects, four men and five women between 23 and 49 years of age, 800 mg calcium was orally administered as active absorbable algal calcium (AAA Ca) (A) and calcium carbonate (CaCO3) (B), to compare with non-calcium-containing placebo (C) in a crossover design. Calcium, oxalate, osmolality, creatinine, and pH were measured in the first three morning urine samples and Ca/osmolality, Ca/osmolality/body weight, Ca/creatinine, and oxalate/osmolality were calculated to correct for urine dilution. Ca × oxalate product was also calculated, and Ca oxalate crystal in the sediment was microscopically examined, semiquantitatively estimated as −, +, ++, or +++, and numerically expressed as 0, 1, 2, or 3, respectively. Urinary Ca excretion was similar in groups A and B, but significantly larger than in group C, regardless of the method of correction for dilution. Urinary oxalate excretion with correction for osmolality, however, was significantly lower in A than in B and C, which gave similar values. Urine pH was similar among all three groups. Ca × oxalate product was significantly higher in C than in A, but A and B were not significantly different. AAA Ca appeared to decrease urinary oxalate excretion and Ca × oxalate product more efficiently than CaCO3, suggesting the possibility of inhibiting the formation of Ca × oxalate kidney stones.

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EFFECTS OF ACTIVE AMINO ACID CALCIUM: ITS BIOAVAILABILITY ON INTESTINAL ABSORPTION, [BONE LOSS] AND REMOVAL OF PLUTONIUM IN ANIMALS

S. Fukuda
J.Bone Miner Met, (December 1998) Vol 11 (Supplement 3): S47-S54

Abstract
Effects of active amino acid calcium (AAACa) on intestinal absorption, [bone loss], and removal of plutonium were examined and the following results were obtained. (1) AAACa was absorbed more rapidly from the small intestine to raise serum levels of calcium to a significantly higher level than CaCO did in rats and beagle dogs. (2) Dietary AAACa supplement had beneficial effects to prevent and alleviate [bone loss] in ovariectomized rats. (3) Dietary AAACa supplement could reduce contents of plutonium in rat bone. In conclusion, these results indicate that AAACa has a high bioavailability to influence the bone metabolism favorably.

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A PILOT STUDY COMPARING AAACA AND CALCIUM CITRATE SUPPLEMENTATION IN MENOPAUSAL US WOMEN

Susan E. Brown, PhD, CCN, Director
Townsend Letter For Doctors & Patients, August/September 2002; 110-114

Summary
Over the years there has been considerable attention given to the issue of calcium effectiveness and bioavailability. In this small (N11), four-week pilot study, the novel Japanese form of calcium (AAACa) was compared with calcium citrate. AAACa is a unique Japanese form of active absorbable algal calcium developed from heated oyster shell with vacuum-heated seaweed. Calcium citrate is the preferred form of calcium used in the US. The end points of this pilot study were alterations to bone resorption, as measured by urinary Deoxypyridinoline Type I Collagen Crosslinks (Dpd); and serum intact parathyroid hormone (iPTH) and first morning urine pH.

In each case, the subject received 900 mg of elemental calcium in a dosing regimen of 150 mg with each meal, and 450 mg at bedtime. This dosing regimen was likely an important factor in producing a consistent reduction in bone resorption within only four weeks.

In this small study formal statistical analysis was not able to detect a significant difference between the effects of these two forms of calcium on any end point studied. From a case study perspective, however, there was a trend favoring AAACa over calcium citrate in reducing bone resorption markers.

Specifically: AAACa subjects as a group began with higher Dpd bone resorption markers than calcium citrate group (M 9.77 as compared to M 9.36) and ended with lower markers (M 5.4 compared to M 5.84).

The average reduction in Dpd from the beginning of the study to the end was greater in those using AAACa (M - 4.37) than those using calcium citrate (-3.52). The average percentage change was - 43% for AAACa and - 33% for calcium citrate.

Using a 26% reduction in Dpd as statistically significant, all women using AAACa experienced a significant 26% decrease in Dpd. Only two of the five women on calcium citrate experienced such a 26% reduction.

While the group given AAACa began with a higher average Dpd reading, three of these six subjects reduced their Dpd level to near or below the ideal pre-menopausal level. On the other hand, none of the women on calcium citrate came to so closely approximate the ideal pre-menopausal level.

In regard to fasting IPTH, neither supplement was able to reduce the parameter in this short four-week study. Those using calcium citrate experienced a sizable increase in IPTH, while those using AAACA remained stable. As for first morning urine pH, there was no significant change detected from the use of either supplement.

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REAPPRAISAL OF KATSURAGI CALCIUM STUDY, A PROSPECTIVE, DOUBLE-BLIND, PLACEBO-CONTROLLED STUDY ON THE EFFECT OF ACTIVE ABSORBABLE ALGAL CALCIUM (AAACa) ON VERTEBRAL DEFORMITY AND FRACTURE

Takuo Fujita1, 2 C, Mutsumi Ohue1, Yoshio Fujii2, Akimitsu Miyauchi3 and Yasuyuki Takagi3
(1) Katsuragi Hospital, 250 Makamicho, Kishiwada, Osaka, 596-0842, Japan
(2) Calcium Research Institute, Osaka, Japan
(3) National Sanatorium Hyogo Chuo Hospital, Hyogo, Japan

J Bone Miner Metab (2004) 22:32–38

Abstract
A prospective, double-blind, placebo-controlled study of the effect of supplementation with 900 mg/day of calcium, as active absorbable algal calcium (AAA Ca) or calcium carbonate (CaCO3), on lumbar bone mineral density (BMD) carried out in elderly inpatients with [bone loss] at Katsuragi Hospital was re-evaluated in terms of the effects on vertebral fracture and spondylotic deformity. In addition to the already reported increase in lumbar BMD, AAA Ca was found to inhibit new occurrence of vertebral fracture. Intra-individual variations in L1–L4 BMD (expressed by the coefficient of variation, indicating the degree of spondylotic deformity, were also inhibited significantly in the group supplemented with AAA Ca (group A), but not in group B (supplemented with CaCO3), from the level in the placebo-supplement group (group C) after 18 months of supplementation. According to whole-body dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) results in the first and second year of the study, whole body mass, lean content, and mineral content, expressed as a percentage of whole body mass, stayed unchanged, while increase of fat content was significantly inhibited in group A, but not in group B, from the level in group C. As to the regional distribution of bone mineral content, the second year/first year value for head bone mineral content was significantly decreased with AAA supplementation compared with placebo, but no significant difference was found between CaCO3 and placebo supplementation. Changes in mineral distribution in the arms, trunk, and legs showed no significant differences among the three groups. In addition to increasing BMD and preventing fracture, AAA Ca, but not CaCO3, appears to inhibit the occurrence of spondylotic deformity and to decrease body fat content.

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POSTURAL STABILIZING EFFECT OF ALCALCIDOL AND ACTIVE ABSORBABLE ALGAL CALCIUM (AAACA) COMPARED WITH CALCIUM CARBONATE ASSESSED BY COMPUTERIZED POSTUROGRAPHY

Fujita Takuo (Katsuragi Hospital And Calcium Res. Inst., Osaka) Nakamura ShohoI (Katsuragi Hospital And Calcium Res. Inst., Osaka) Ohue Mutsumi (Katsuragi Hospital And Calcium Res. Inst., Osaka) Fujii Yoshio (Calcium Res. Inst., Osaka,) Miyauchi Akimitsu (Calcium Res. Inst., Osaka) Takagi Yasuyuki I (National Hospital Organization Hyogo Chuo Hospital, Hyog) Tsugeno Hirofumi I (Tsuyama Chuo Hospital, Okayama)
J Bone Miner Metab (2007) 25,1 68-73

Abstract
Sway and postural instability have drawn attention as a risk factor for fracture, in addition to low bone mineral density (BMD) and poor bone quality. In view of the fracture-reducing effect of alfacalcidol and active absorbable algal calcium (AAA Ca) not readily explained by rather mild increases of BMD, attempts were made to evaluate postural stabilizing effect of alfacalcidol, AAA Ca, and calcium carbonate (CaCO3) by computerized posturography. Track of the gravity center was analyzed to calculate parameters related to tract length, track range, and track density to express the degree of sway before and after supplementation in 126 subjects ranging in age between 20 and 81 years randomly divided into four groups. Supplementation with AAA Ca containing 900 mg elemental Ca (group A), no calcium (group B), CaCO3 also containing 900 mg elemental Ca (group C), or alfacalcidol (group D) continued daily for 12 months. For each parameter, the ratio closed eye value/open eye value (Romberg ratio) was calculated to detect aggravation of sway by eye closure. Age, parameters of Ca and P, and proportions of subjects with fracture and those with low BMD showed no marked deviation among the groups. With eyes open, significant decreases of a track range parameter (REC) from group B was noted in groups A (P = 0.0397) and D (P = 0.0296), but not in group C according to multiple comparison by Scheffe, indicating superior postural stabilizing effect of A and D over C. In the first 2 months, a significant fall was already evident in REC from group B in group D (P = 0.0120) with eyes open. Paired comparison of sway parameters before and after supplementation revealed a significant increase of track density parameter (LNGA), indicating sway control efficiency and a significant decrease of REC in groups A and D compared to group B with eyes open.

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ACTIVE ABSORBABLE ALGAL CALCIUM (AAACa): NEW JAPANESE TECHNOLOGY FOR BONE LOSS AND CALCIUM PARADOX

Fujita T.
J Assoc Physicians India. 2004 Jul;52:564-7.

Abstract:
Active Absorbable Algal Calcium (AAACa) is made by submaximally (800 degrees C) heating cleaned oyster shell under reduced pressure and mix it with similarly heated seaweed (Cystophyllum fusiforme). AAACa, best absorbed from the intestine among available calcium compounds, consequently most efficiently suppresses parathyroid hormone secretion, increases bone mineral density and decreases vertebral fracture. Aging is associated with calcium deficiency, mostly because of the decreased biosynthesis of 1,25 (OH)2 vitamin D in the kidney. Parathyroid hormone consequently increases, contributing to various concerns associated with aging such as decrease of calcium in the bone, as well as [several concerns] due to paradoxical increase of calcium in vascular walls, brain, cartilage and intracellular compartment of many kinds of cells. Mild calcium deficiency is hard to detect despite these serious consequences because of the remarkable constancy of blood calcium concentration maintained by elaborate homeostatic control. Only by successfully counteracting calcium deficiency by AAA Ca with outstanding absorbability, the phenomenon of calcium paradox becomes a recognizable reality within our reach.

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FRACTIONAL ABSORPTION OF ACTIVE ABSORBABLE ALGAL CALCIUM (AAACa) AND CALCIUM CARBONATE AS MEASURED BY DUAL STABLE - ISOTOPE METHOD

Kazuhiro Uenishi,Takuo Fujita, Hiromi Ishida, Yoshio Fujii, Mutsumi Ohue, Hiroshi Kaji, Midori Hirai, Mikio Kakumoto and Steven A. Abrams
Nutrients 2010, 2, 752-761

Abstract:
With the use of stable isotopes, this study aimed to compare the bioavailability of active absorbable algal calcium (AAACa), obtained from oyster shell powder heated to a high temperature, with an additional heated seaweed component (Heated Algal Ingredient, HAI), with that of calcium carbonate. In 10 postmenopausal women volunteers aged 59 to 77 years (mean ± S.D., 67 ± 5.3), the fractional calcium absorption of AAACa and CaCO3 was measured by a dual stable isotope method. 44Ca-enriched CaCO3 and AAACa were administered in all subjects one month apart. After a fixed-menu breakfast and pre-test urine collection (Urine 0), 42Ca-enriched CaCl2 was intravenously injected, followed by oral administration of 44Ca-enriched CaCO3 without carrier 15 minutes later, and complete urine collection for the next 24 hours (Urine 24). The fractional calcium absorption was calculated as the ratio of Augmentation of 44Ca from Urine 0 to Urine 24/ augmentation of 42Ca from Urine 0 to Urine 24. Differences and changes of 44Ca and 42Ca were corrected by comparing each with 43Ca. Fractional absorption of AAACa (mean ± S.D., 23.1 ± 6.4), was distinctly and significantly higher than that of CaCO3 (14.7 ± 6.4; p = 0.0060 by paired t-test). The mean fractional absorption was approximately 1.57-times higher for AAACa than for CaCO3. The serum 25(OH) vitamin D level was low (mean ± S.D., 14.2 ± 4.95 ng/ml), as is common in this age group in Japan. Among the parameters of the bone and mineral metabolism measured, none displayed a significant correlation with the fractional absorption of CaCO3 and AAACa. Higher fractional absorption of AAACa compared with CaCO3 supports previous reports on the more beneficial effect of AAACa than CaCO3 for [bone loss].

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